How Many Suns Are There in the Universe?

The question of how many suns exist in the universe is an intriguing one that invites us to explore the vastness and diversity of the cosmos. How many suns are there? To understand the answer, we must consider the different types of celestial bodies, stellar populations, and the current scientific knowledge about the universe. While it is impossible to provide an exact number, scientists estimate that there are billions of stars similar to our Sun, and these are just a fraction of the total number of stars in the universe.

How Many Suns are There?

Stars vs Suns

Stars are luminous celestial objects composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas, undergoing nuclear fusion in their cores. They emit light and heat due to the intense energy released during this fusion process. Our Sun is a typical star, classified as a G-type main-sequence star, and it serves as the center of our Solar System. However, the universe is teeming with countless other stars, varying in size, mass, temperature, and brightness.

In our own galaxy, the Milky Way, scientists estimate that there are around 100 billion to 400 billion stars. This estimate is based on observations, measurements, and statistical analyses of the distribution and characteristics of stars within the galaxy. While this number is staggering, it represents just one galaxy among billions in the universe.

Beyond the Milky Way

There are numerous other galaxies, each containing billions to trillions of stars. These galaxies come in various shapes and sizes, ranging from spirals to ellipticals and irregular formations. The Andromeda Galaxy, our closest neighbor, is similar in size to the Milky Way and is estimated to host around 1 trillion stars. When we consider that there are billions of galaxies in the observable universe, the total number of stars becomes mind-bogglingly large.

Milky Way
Photo Credit: NASA

Furthermore, it is important to note that not all stars are similar to our Sun. Stars can differ in size, temperature, and luminosity. There are massive stars, many times larger and more massive than the Sun, known as supergiants. On the other end of the spectrum, there are smaller and cooler stars, such as red dwarfs. These different types of stars make up the stellar population of the universe, contributing to its rich diversity.

How Many Stars Are There?

The estimation of billions of stars similar to our Sun is based on statistical analyses, observations, and theoretical models. Astronomers use various techniques to study stars, including spectroscopy, which analyzes the light emitted or absorbed by stars, and stellar evolution models, which provide insights into the life cycles of stars. These methods allow scientists to make informed estimates about the abundance and characteristics of stars in the universe.

It is important to highlight that the number of stars in the universe is not a fixed value and is subject to refinement as our observational capabilities improve. The universe is vast and continually expanding, and new telescopes and technologies are being developed to explore and study it further.

Photo Credit: NASA

Beyond the Stars

In addition to individual stars, scientists have also discovered other intriguing celestial objects that exhibit star-like characteristics. For example, there are binary star systems, where two stars orbit around a common center of mass. There are also star clusters, which are groups of stars that formed from the same molecular cloud. Globular clusters, in particular, can contain hundreds of thousands or even millions of stars tightly bound together.

How Many Suns Are There? Wrap Up

In conclusion, while it is impossible to provide an exact number, scientists estimate that there are billions of stars similar to our Sun in the universe. These stars exist within galaxies, including our own Milky Way, as well as billions of other galaxies spread across the cosmos. The exploration and study of stars continue to be a fascinating field of research, contributing to our understanding of the universe and its incredible diversity. As our knowledge and technology progress, we can expect to uncover even more about the multitude of suns that exist beyond our own.

Little Dipper Spiritual Meaning

The celestial realm has always captivated humanity, offering a glimpse into the mysterious wonders of the universe. Among the countless celestial objects that dot the night sky, the Little Dipper, also known as Ursa Minor, stands out with its distinct seven-star formation. Beyond its astronomical significance, the Little Dipper holds a profound spiritual meaning that has been woven into the tapestry of various cultures throughout history. In this exploration, we delve into the spiritual symbolism associated with this constellation and unravel its significance in guiding and inspiring the human spirit.

Little Dipper
Photo Credit: Seattle Pacific University

Historical and Cultural Significance

Throughout different cultures and civilizations, the Little Dipper has played a pivotal role in the spiritual and mythological narratives. In ancient Greek mythology, the constellation was associated with the nymph Callisto, who was transformed into a bear by the jealous goddess Hera. Her son, Arcas, was also transformed into a bear and together they became the constellations Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. The Little Dipper, being part of this story, represents the enduring bond between mother and child.

In Chinese mythology, the Little Dipper is linked to the legend of the Cowherd and the Weaver Girl. The stars of the constellation represent the Cowherd and the Weaver Girl, who were separated by the heavenly river (Milky Way) but allowed to reunite once a year on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month. This tale symbolizes the power of love, perseverance, and the pursuit of eternal unity.

Little Dipper Spiritual Meaning
Photo Credit: Alexey Panferov/ Alamy

Universal Guidance and Navigation

Beyond mythology, the Little Dipper has served as a guiding beacon for travelers and explorers throughout history. Due to the presence of Polaris, the North Star, at the tip of its handle, the Little Dipper has long been used for navigation, providing a constant reference point in the vastness of the night sky. Symbolically, this has translated into the constellation representing guidance, direction, and steadfastness on life’s journey.

Metaphorically, the Little Dipper’s spiritual meaning extends beyond physical navigation. It serves as a reminder that each individual has an internal compass—a divine spark or intuition—that can guide them through life’s challenges and uncertainties. The seven stars of the constellation, when seen together, represent the interconnectedness of all aspects of existence and the inherent wisdom within each being.

Finding Balance and Inner Harmony

The symbolism of the Little Dipper also encompasses the quest for balance and inner harmony. The constellation’s position close to the North Celestial Pole suggests a stable and unchanging nature. In spiritual teachings, this stability is linked to the concept of finding equilibrium within oneself, aligning with the rhythms of the universe, and cultivating a sense of inner peace.

Additionally, the Little Dipper’s association with nighttime brings forth the idea of reflection, introspection, and the search for deeper truths. It encourages individuals to look within, exploring their inner worlds and the mysteries of existence. By embracing the stillness and silence of the night, one can connect with the subtle energies of the universe and discover their own spiritual purpose.

A Message of Hope

The Little Dipper’s spiritual meaning goes beyond its physical appearance in the night sky. It carries a message of hope, resilience, and the power of small things. Despite its size and often being overshadowed by its larger counterpart, Ursa Major, the Little Dipper shines brightly, reminding us that even the seemingly insignificant can hold great significance.

In many spiritual teachings, the concept of the “small self” is explored. It refers to the ego, the part of us that is driven by desires, fears, and attachments. The Little Dipper symbolizes the journey of transcending this small self and reconnecting with our higher, more expansive nature. It invites us to rise above the limitations of the ego and tap into our inner divinity.

The Little Dipper Constellation
Photo Credit:

Staying Aligned with Our True Purpose

Furthermore, the Little Dipper’s position close to the North Star reminds us of the importance of staying aligned with our true purpose. Just as the North Star has guided explorers and adventurers throughout history, the Little Dipper encourages us to navigate our lives by staying true to our values, passions, and soul’s calling. It urges us to trust our inner compass and follow the path that resonates with our authentic selves.

The seven stars of the Little Dipper can also be seen as representing different aspects of human existence. Each star represents a facet of our being: the physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, social, creative, and intuitive aspects. The constellation serves as a reminder to harmonize these aspects, recognizing the need for balance and integration in our lives.

Solace in the Darkness

Moreover, the Little Dipper invites us to find solace in the darkness. Just as stars shine their brightest in the night sky, we too have the potential to find light within ourselves even in the midst of challenges and hardships. It teaches us to embrace the shadows and find strength and wisdom in times of adversity. By connecting with the stillness and quietude of the night, we can access our inner reservoirs of resilience and tap into the universal wellspring of knowledge.

The Little Dipper’s spiritual meaning also encourages us to cultivate a sense of interconnectedness and unity. The stars, though separated by vast distances, form a constellation that appears as a cohesive whole. Similarly, we are all interconnected, part of a larger cosmic tapestry. The constellation reminds us of our inherent connection to the universe and the interdependence of all beings. It invites us to foster compassion, empathy, and a sense of collective responsibility.

Little and Big Dipper
Photo Credit:

The Little Dipper Spiritual Meaning: Wrap Up

The Little Dipper, with its historical, cultural, and metaphorical significance, carries a profound spiritual meaning that resonates with people across time and space. From its mythical tales to its role in navigation, this constellation serves as a reminder of the enduring bonds of love, the power of guidance, and the quest for balance and inner harmony. By embracing the symbolism of the Little Dipper, individuals can find inspiration, guidance, and a deeper connection to the cosmic wonders that surround us, ultimately fostering a greater sense of purpose and spiritual growth.

In conclusion, the Little Dipper holds a rich spiritual meaning that encompasses transcendence, purpose, balance, resilience, and interconnectedness. It serves as a guiding light, reminding us to rise above our limited perspectives and connect with the divine essence within us. By embracing the symbolism of the Little Dipper, we can embark on a transformative journey of self-discovery, inner harmony, and spiritual growth, ultimately finding our place in the vast cosmic dance of existence.

The Age of the Sun

The age of the Sun, our closest star, is a topic of great scientific interest. Determining the precise age of the Sun involves studying various aspects of stellar evolution, cosmology, and geological evidence. Through extensive research and analysis, scientists have estimated that the Sun is approximately 4.6 billion years old.

the age of the sun
Photo Credit: Astronomy Magazine

How Do We Know How Old the Sun Is?

To understand how this age is determined, we need to delve into the methods and evidence used by scientists. One crucial aspect is the study of radioactive isotopes, which decay over time. By measuring the ratios of certain isotopes found in meteorites and rocks on Earth, scientists can calculate the age of these materials and, by extension, the Solar System. This method, known as radiometric dating, provides a basis for estimating the age of the Sun.


Meteorites, which are remnants of early solar system material, have been particularly helpful in determining the age of the Sun. Scientists have analyzed certain radioactive isotopes, such as uranium and lead, in these meteorites to calculate their ages. These ages align with the estimated age of the Solar System, indicating that the Sun formed around the same time as the rest of the planets and other celestial bodies.


Another method used to determine the Sun’s age involves studying star clusters. These clusters are groups of stars that formed from the same molecular cloud and are believed to be roughly the same age. By analyzing the properties and lifetimes of stars within clusters, scientists can make educated estimates about the age of the Sun.

Stars in the Sky
Photo Credit: NASA

Comparing the Sun to Other Stars

Additionally, astronomers study the evolution of stars and models of stellar structure to gain insights into the Sun’s age. By comparing the Sun’s properties, such as its size, luminosity, and composition, with theoretical models, scientists can estimate its age. This approach involves understanding how stars evolve over time, from their formation to their eventual fate.

While these methods provide valuable information, scientists have also used geological evidence to further support the estimated age of the Sun. By studying rocks on Earth, specifically those formed from volcanic activity, scientists can analyze the decay of radioactive isotopes to determine their ages. This data has been used to validate the age of the Solar System, which includes the Sun.

How Confident Are We in the Sun’s Age?

In addition to these scientific methods, it’s important to note that the estimated age of the Sun is based on a number of assumptions and uncertainties. These estimates are subject to refinement as new data and improved techniques become available. Therefore, the 4.6 billion-year estimate should be regarded as a reasonably accurate approximation rather than an exact figure.

The age of the Sun has significant implications for our understanding of the universe and the development of life. It tells us that the Sun is a relatively middle-aged star in its main sequence, with about 5 billion more years of expected life remaining before it evolves into a red giant. This knowledge helps us comprehend the vast timescales involved in stellar evolution and the potential habitability of other star systems.

The Sun
Photo Credit: NASA

The Age of Our Solar System

The estimated age of the Sun, 4.6 billion years, also provides valuable insights into the formation and evolution of our Solar System. According to the prevailing scientific theory, the Sun and the rest of the Solar System originated from a vast cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula. This nebula collapsed under the force of gravity, causing it to spin and flatten into a rotating disk. The Sun formed at the center of this disk, while the surrounding material coalesced to form planets, moons, asteroids, and comets.

By understanding the age of the Sun, scientists can make inferences about the timing and processes involved in the formation of the planets. The early Solar System was a chaotic and dynamic environment, with collisions and accretion playing a significant role in shaping the planets we observe today. The age of the Sun places constraints on when these processes occurred, providing a framework for studying the history of our planetary system.

The Age of Earth

The Sun’s age is also linked to the development of life on Earth. Life, as we know it, requires a stable environment and sufficient time for complex organisms to evolve. The 4.6 billion-year age of the Sun indicates that our planet has had ample time for life to arise and evolve into the diverse forms we see today. The Sun’s energy, through the process of photosynthesis, has been a vital driver of life on Earth, providing the energy necessary for biological processes.

Furthermore, the study of other stars and their ages can provide additional context for understanding the Sun’s place in the universe. By comparing the Sun to stars of different ages and stages of evolution, astronomers can gain insights into stellar lifecycles and the factors that influence a star’s lifespan. This knowledge can help us better understand the Sun’s future evolution and the potential habitability of other star systems.

What Does the Age of the Sun Mean?

It’s important to note that the Sun’s age is not a constant value, but rather a measure of its current stage of evolution. The Sun is a main-sequence star, which means it is in a stable phase of nuclear fusion, converting hydrogen into helium in its core. However, over time, the Sun will exhaust its hydrogen fuel and undergo significant changes. As the hydrogen supply dwindles, the Sun will enter a new phase, expanding and becoming a red giant. This transformation will have profound effects on the planets in the Solar System, including Earth.

How old is the sun?
Photo Credit: Astronomy Magazine


In conclusion, the age of the Sun, estimated at 4.6 billion years, has far-reaching implications for our understanding of the universe, the formation of the Solar System, and the development of life on Earth. Through a combination of radiometric dating, analysis of star clusters, and comparison with theoretical models, scientists have arrived at this estimate. The Sun’s age provides a foundation for studying the history and evolution of our planetary system, as well as our place in the cosmos.

Continued research and technological advancements will likely refine our understanding of the Sun’s age and further enhance our knowledge of stellar evolution. Scientists have arrived at this estimate through the study of radioactive isotopes in meteorites and rocks, the analysis of star clusters, and the comparison of the Sun’s properties with stellar evolution models. While the estimate is subject to refinement, it provides us with a solid understanding of the Sun’s place in the universe and its ongoing evolution.

Diamond Planet: The Jewelry of the Sky

In the vast expanse of the universe, celestial bodies of extraordinary nature continue to captivate our imagination. Among them, diamond planets stand out as some of the most intriguing and mesmerizing discoveries. These rare worlds, composed mostly of carbon, have the potential to host stunning landscapes adorned with sparkling diamond formations. In this article, we will delve into the fascinating realm of diamond planets, exploring their formation, composition, and the scientific wonders they hold.

Diamond in the Sky
Photo Credit: ESO/

Formation and Composition

Diamond planets are believed to form in dense star systems, known as pulsar systems or millisecond pulsars, where a pulsar—a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star—spirals inward towards a white dwarf star. The intense gravitational forces generated during this process can tear apart the pulsar, creating a disk of debris composed primarily of carbon. Over time, these carbon-rich disks cool and solidify, eventually forming rocky bodies with a diamond-like composition.

The diamond planets are thought to consist of crystalline carbon structures, similar to those found in Earth’s diamonds. However, unlike diamonds on our planet, which are formed under immense pressure deep within the Earth’s mantle, the diamonds on these celestial bodies are likely to be much larger and more abundant, potentially covering their entire surfaces.

Diamond Planet
Photo Credit: National Geographic

Properties and Geological Marvels

The unique properties of diamond planets offer a glimpse into a world of incredible geological marvels. The surfaces of these planets, shimmering with the brilliance of countless diamonds, would reflect and refract light in unimaginable ways. The high refractive index of diamonds could create dazzling rainbows and prismatic displays, transforming the planetary landscape into a breathtaking spectacle.

Furthermore, the extreme hardness of diamonds would result in rocky terrain that is virtually indestructible. Mountains, valleys, and canyons on these celestial bodies would be adorned with diamond cliffs and peaks, presenting a majestic and otherworldly sight. The dynamic interplay of light and the crystal structures would create a visual experience unlike anything witnessed on Earth.

Exploration and Implications

Although diamond planets exist in the realm of scientific speculation, their discovery would have profound implications for our understanding of planetary formation and the potential for life elsewhere in the universe. These exotic worlds could provide valuable insights into the conditions necessary for the formation of complex carbon-based molecules, a fundamental building block of life.

While the concept of diamond planets is still largely theoretical, advancements in astronomical research and technology continue to push the boundaries of our knowledge. Future missions and observatories, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, may provide the means to detect and study these extraordinary celestial bodies, unraveling the mysteries of their origin and nature.

Diamond Crust
Photo Credit: IGI


Diamond planets, with their dazzling landscapes and enigmatic compositions, serve as a reminder of the infinite wonders that await discovery beyond our home planet. As scientists continue to explore the cosmos, these captivating celestial bodies provide a tantalizing glimpse into the extraordinary diversity and complexity of the universe.

Regular And Irregular Moons: Are They Truly That Different?

What’s the difference between a regular moons and an irregular moons? Regular moons revolve around their planets in the same direction as their host orbits. Irregular moons sometimes travel in the opposite direction, retrograde, and have eccentric (they get a little wild!) orbits. 

Regular and Irregular Moons
Image Credit: NASA from the Juno Spacecraft

What Are The Differences Between Regular And Irregular Moons?

Besides the path a planet’s moon (or satellite) travels, its formation indicates whether a moon is regular or irregular. 

  • Regular moons often form as chips off the old block, so to speak.  
  • Irregular satellites gather particulates to become one large object. 

What Are The Characteristics Of Regular Versus Irregular Moons?

To define the characteristics of regular moons, let’s look at the orbit, orbital inclination, orbital eccentricity, and the formation of moons. 

Image Credit: NASA from the Juno Spacecraft

Orbit Direction And Period

Regular moons travel around their host planet in a roughly circular plane; both travel in the same direction (prograde.) If you’re standing at the North Pole (on Earth) and looking down, you will see the moon traveling clockwise around the planet.

Irregular moons often travel around their hosts in a retrograde orbit. That means they go in the opposite direction of their worlds. 

Additionally, regular moons have a quicker orbital period than irregular ones. For example, Jupiter’s four Galilean moons are all regular, moving more quickly around the planet than its irregular natural satellites.

Orbital Inclination

Orbital inclination refers to the amount the moon leans or inclines toward its host planet. An inclination is measured relative to the host planet’s equator, given that the natural satellite orbits closely. So the equatorial plane is perpendicular to the central body’s axis of rotation.

Inclination DegreeMoon TypeOrbit TypeOrbit Direction
RegularEquatorial PlanePrograde
>0° but <90°RegularEccentricPrograde
>90° but <180°IrregularEccentricRetrograde
180°IrregularEquatorial PlaneRetrograde

Orbital Eccentricity

Another aspect that defines the difference between regular and irregular moons is their orbital eccentricity. In other words, what shape does the orbit follow? Roughly circular patterns like the one Earth’s moon travels has an eccentricity level of zero. 

For example, an orbit’s eccentricity ranges from zero to one. A zero value means the satellite travels in a circle and is regular. But the more a satellite’s orbit stretches into an elliptical, the higher its eccentricity value, up to a level 1.

Irregular moons also have differing orbital eccentricity values at their apogee and perigees. And they travel at different speeds at each end of the elliptic.

  •  An apogee is the orbit point when the moon is furthest from its planet and travels the slowest. 
  • A perigee is when the natural satellite is closest to its planet and travels its fastest. 

Regular moons have lower orbit eccentricities, while Irregular Moons have higher eccentricities.

How many moons does Jupiter have?
Jupiter’s Moons Image Credit of NASA

Moon Formation

The way a moon is formed indicates whether it is regular or irregular. 

Regular moons are likely formed from “local” materials. 

  • Example: An asteroid impacts a planet and breaks off a chunk of this ejected into orbit around the planet.  
  • The “chunk” becomes a moon. 
  • Or the moon forms when multiple astral objects merge into one larger entity, again becoming a moon. 

Irregular moons are trapped objects captured by a planet’s gravitational pull and held inside the host planet’s hill sphere. Some of the material originated from the early solar system and was formed elsewhere but fell into the planet’s orbit. 


While every rule has exceptions, regular moons orbit their host planets in a stable and nearly circular pattern. 

Regular moons form from dust clouds and particles from their host planet or rings. A regular moon may have been formed when a comet, satellite, or another planet collides with the host planet. The material ejected into orbit orbits around the host planet and then groups together to form a moon. 

Irregular moons exist because the planet captures them with its gravitational pull. Captured bodies generally move in an erratic and eccentric orbit, becoming irregular moons.

JUICE: The Fascinating Launch That Could Change The Way We Look At Jupiter’s Moons Forever

The European Space Agency (ESA) heads for Jupiter in 2023! The spacecraft will launch from South America and arrive at Jupiter in 2031. After orbit insertion at Jupiter, the spacecraft will spend three years observing both Jupiter and three of its largest moons.  

The mission is the first “large class” mission in the ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the ESA’s project. The spacecraft will spend seven or eight years traveling toward Jupiter with a tentative arrival date/Jupiter orbit date of 2031.

The mission will conclude when the spacecraft intentionally crashes into one of Jupiter’s moons.

European Space Agency Rendering of JUICE

Flight Paths

The flight path from Earth to Jupiter will last approximately seven to eight years. The spacecraft will orbit Jupiter’s moons for about three and a half years collecting data. 

Flight Path to Jupiter

The JUICE mission will launch from the European Spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The Ariane 5, “The Heavy Launcher,” will carry the spacecraft.  

The spacecraft will take advantage of gravity assists from Earth (three different times!), Venus and Mars to increase the spacecraft velocity and reduce the flight time.

Flight Path around Jupiter’s Moons

JUICE will use the gravity from Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa to adjust its flight trajectory during flybys past each moon to stabilize and optimize its orbit. JUICE will collect data from Jupiter, Callisto, and Europa during the flybys.  

JUICE will be placed into a highly elliptical orbit around Ganymede before the mission’s conclusion. 


In 2022, the ESA finalized the launch window for the JUICE mission. Launching the spacecraft within this time window will allow gravity assistance from the Earth and Venus.

April 5th-25th 2023Launch
August 2024Earth flyby-Gravitational Assist (1)
August 2025Venus flyby
September 2026Earth flyby-Gravitational Assist (2)
January 2029Earth flyby-Gravitational Assist (3)
July 2031Enter Jupiter Orbit
July 2032Europa flybys
August 2032-August 2033Callisto flybys
December 2034Enter Ganymede orbit
+200 DAYSPossible mission extension
September 2035Crash spacecraft into Ganymede

Mission Objective

JUICE has different objectives for three of Jupiter’s moons, Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa.


  1. Ocean water (sub-surface) characterization
  2. Search for theoretical subsurface water reservoirs 
  3. Mapping the surface of the moon
    1. Topographical
    2. Geological
    3. Compositional
  4. Moons core characterization
    1. Internal mass distribution
    2. Evolution and dynamics.
  5. Exosphere 
  6. Magnetic fields
Rendering Credit: NASA


Ganymede and Callisto have the same objectives. 


  1. Organic molecules
  2. Formation of surface crust
  3. Non-water-ice elemental composition

What are Scientists the Most Excited About?

In a word, Habitability. Planetary scientists spent decades looking for planets in our galaxy similar to Earth in relation to their atmosphere and elemental composition.  

Today scientists have shifted their telescope lens (so to speak) and are instead looking at planets and moons that might have subsurface oceans that can support life. 

The Galilean moons of Jupiter are more similar to other planets than they are to other moons. Long considered dormant, cold, icy blocks of ice, the Galilean moons have planetary scientists enthused about potentially habitable underground oceans. There are two vital primary questions planetary scientists hope to be able to answer based on the data from JUICE.

  1. Does extra-terrestrial life exist? (Hint: Think single-cell organisms, not sharks and whales.)
  2. How are planets formed?
JUICE and Jupiter
Rendering Credit: Airbus

It’s Getting Busy Around Jupiter’s Moons!

The European Space Agency, NASA, and China are planning large-scale missions to Jupiter and its moons in the coming years. 

  • The ESA will launch the JUICE mission in 2022.
  • NASA plans to send the Europa Clipper toward Jupiter’s moon Europa in 2024. The spacecraft should arrive around the same time window as the ESA’s JUICE. The Clipper will collect data to allow scientists to understand its capability of supporting life.  
  • China announced they’ll send the Tianwwen 4 to Jupiter’s moon Callisto in 2030. According to the China National Space Administration, “The scientific goals are still under consideration.”

Launch Time!

The eyes of the world will be on the JUICE mission when it arrives at Jupiter’s moons. With an eight-year flight time and a three to four-year mission after arriving at Jupiter, JUICE will send data for scientists to evaluate and debate for a long time. We can’t wait!